Intergranular corrosion of high purity austenitic stainless steel. by Stephen Kim Fai Lo

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Pagination79 leaves
Number of Pages79
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Open LibraryOL16346200M

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The effect of various elements on inter- granular corrosion has been studied by Armijo [3]. It was shown that solution-treated high purity austenitic stainless steels doped with phosphorus or silicon are susceptible to inter- granular attack in the nitric acid-potassium dichromate by: : Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring (Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering) (): Khatak, H S, Raj, B: BooksFormat: Hardcover.

Intergranular Corrosion for Extra High Purity Austenitic Stainless Steel in Boiling Nitric Acid with Cr(VI) Ikuo IOKA 1), Chiaki KATO 1), Kiyoshi KIUCHI 1), Junpei NAKAYAMA 2)Cited by: 4.

Austenitic stainless steels suffer intergranular attack in boiling nitric acid with oxidants. The intergranular corrosion is mainly caused by the segregation of impurities at the grain. An extra high purity austenitic stainless steel (EHP alloys) was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting technique in order to suppress the total harmful impurities less than ppm.

intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels. Examples include solution quenching, stabilization with titanium and niobium additions and the use of low carbon (2) alloys.

Although very useful, this theory has a serious flaw: it specifies the necessary but not sufficient con-ditions for intergranular attack.

A continuous grainFile Size: KB. The intergranular corrosion is mainly caused by the segregation of impurities at the grain. An extra high purity austenitic stainless steel (EHP alloys) was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting technique in order to suppress the total harmful impurities less than ppm.

Abstract. Almost since their commercial inception about one-half century ago, it has been recognized that stainless steels and related iron-nickel-chromium alloys are susceptible to a particularly insidious mode of corrosive attack, namely intergranular corrosion.

Austenitic stainless steels suffer intergranular attack in boiling nitric acid with oxidants. The intergranular corrosion is mainly caused by the segregation of impurities to grain. An extra high purity austenitic stainless steel (EHP alloys) was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting technique in order to suppress the total harmful impurities less than by: 1.

The degree of sensitization (DOS) of austenitic stainless steel AISI L to intergranular corrosion (IGC) was determined by means of electrolytic etching in oxalic acid and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests completed by metallographic by: Test for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels (Sections 22 to 31, inclusive), and Practice F—Copper–Copper Sulfate–50 % Sulfuric Acid Test for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Molybdenum-Bearing Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (Sec-tions 32 to 38, inclusive).

The File Size: 1MB. Intergranular Corrosion for Extra High Purity Austenitic Stainless Steel in Boiling Nitric Acid with Cr(VI) Article in Journal of Power and Energy Systems 3(1) January with 10 Reads.

The intergranular corrosion is caused by the segregation of impurities to grain boundaries and the resultant formation of active sites. Extra High Purity (EHP) austenitic stainless steel was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting in order to.

() The role of molybdenum in intergranular stress corrosion cracking of SUS stainless steel in high temperature pure water. Welding InternationalOnline publication date: 1-JanCited by: Several methods have been used to control or minimize the intergranular corrosion of susceptible alloys, particularly of the austenitic stainless steels.

For example, a high-temperature solution heat treatment, commonly termed solution-annealing, quench-annealing or solution-quenching, has been used.

The alloy is heated to a temperature of about 1, °C to 1, °C and then water quenched. The intergranular corrosion is caused by the segregation of impurities to grain boundaries and the resultant formation of active sites. Extra High Purity (EHP™) austenitic stainless steel was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting in order to Cited by: 1.

Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Microstructure of metals and alloys is made up of grains (separa ted by grain boundaries) Intergranular corrosion is a localized attack along the grain bo undaries, or immediately adjacent to grain boundaries, while the bulk of t he grains remain largely unaffected IGC is associated: 1.

The effect of ageing of AISI H FG austenitic steel on KCl-induced corrosion was investigated by comparing the corrosion attack on tube material previously service-exposed for h and that. Purchase Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels - 1st Edition.

Print Book & E-Book. ISBN  Cold working and a double aging treatment was used to produce a microstructure with fine nuclei of carbides distributed throughout the grains to improve the intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of austenitic stainless steel.

The treatment was carried out on type stainless steel as follows: cold working (20,30, and 40% reductions in thickness), sensitization ( KJ5 h), and aging Cited by: 1.

This paper presents a study of the effects of carbon, nitrogen, molybdenum, and manganese on the sensitization of high-purity austenitic stainless steels of composition similar to Type The modified Strauss test (ASTM-AE), the oxalic acid etch test (ASTM-AA) and analytical electron microscopy were used to determine the degree and nature of sensitization in the Cited by: Reheating a welded component during multi-pass welding is a common cause of this problem.

In austenitic stainless steels, titanium or niobium can react with carbon to form carbides in the heat affected zone (HAZ) causing a specific type of intergranular corrosion known as knife-line attack.

Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type L SS show severe intergranular corrosion.

Both in the high purity alloys and type L SS, aging treatments ranging from K to K for 1 h enhance intergranularcorrosion. Supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS), including both lean grades (without molybdenum) and high grades (with 2% molybdenum), have shown sensitivity to intergranular corrosion or stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in weld HAZs during laboratory testing in chloride solutions acidified with CO 2 at above about °C.

Test for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels (Sections 37 to 46, inclusive), and Practice F—Copper–Copper Sulfate–50 % Sulfuric Acid Test for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Molybdenum-Bearing Austenitic Stainless Steels (Sections 47 File Size: KB.

The intergranular corrosion (IGC) character of tin-added BLX and the influence of tin addition on IGC susceptibility were investigated by DL-EPR, oxalic acid etch test and transmission electron microscopy.

IGC susceptibility of BLX is mainly caused by the precipitation of M 23C6 carbide and intermetallic Laves phase. DL-EPR test is unsuitable to evaluate the IGC susceptibility of Cited by: 5.

Unlike austenitic stainless steels, high-purity ferritic stainless steels have a high degree of magnetism. Therefore, NSSC R is also effective to improve the efficiency of intergranular corrosion resistance2), b) minimize the amounts of C and N, which adversely affect the ability to cold forge and corrosion.

@article{osti_, title = {Sensitization, intergranular attack, stress corrosion cracking, and irradiation effects on the corrosion of iron--chromium--nickel alloys}, author = {Wu, P C.S.}, abstractNote = {A literature review is presented on the sensitization, intergranular attack, and stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels with emphasis on dilute solutions at.

This paper evaluates the resistance to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the boiling water reactor of several grades and compositions of austenitic stainless steel castings. A specific objective of this work was to predict the performance of Alloy Casting Institute CF3, CF3A, and CF8 castings in nuclear by: 3.

Intergranular Corrosion of High Purity Austenitic Stainless Steels Under Transpassive Conditions J. Stolarz To cite this version: J. Stolarz. In uence of Silicon, Carbon and Phosphorus on Intergranular Corrosion of High Purity Austenitic Stainless Steels Under Transpassive Conditions.

Journal de Physique IV Colloque,05 (C7), 7. @article{osti_, title = {Metallurgical factors influencing the susceptibility of non-sensitized stainless steel to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in high-temperature, high purity water environments}, author = {Akashi, Masatsune and Nakayama, Guen and Komatsu, Hajime and Abe, Seizaburo}, abstractNote = {Sensitized stainless steels exhibit intergranular stress-corrosion.

used as structural materials in strategic and core industries. One of the most widely used stainless steel is AISI type and type L. The latter is preferred in more corrosive environment where welding is involved.

Though these type of steels have high strength and excellent corrosion resistance, they are susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This study investigated the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion (IGC) in austenitic stainless steel with various degrees of sensitization (DOSs) from a microstructural viewpoint based on the coincidence site lattice (CSL) model.

IGC testing was conducted using oxalic acid and type stainless steel specimens with electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) ratios that varied Author: Tomoyuki Fujii, Takaya Furumoto, Keiichiro Tohgo, Yoshinobu Shimamura. Microstructure and intergranular corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel Maysa Terada a, Mitiko Saiki a, Isolda Costa a,*, Angelo Fernando Padilha b a Instituto de Pesquisas Energe ´ticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av.

Professor Lineu Prestes, Cidade Universitaria, Sa˜o Paulo (SP), Brazil b Departamento de Engenharia Metalu´rgica e de Materiais da Universidade de S. The photos above show the microstructure of a type stainless steel.

The figure on the left is the normalized microstructure and the one on the right is the "sensitized" structure and is susceptible to intergranular corrosion or intergranular stress corrosion cracking.

Mechanisms of Intergranular Corrosion. Chloride stress corrosion is a type of intergranular corrosion and occurs in austenitic stainless steel under tensile stress in the presence of oxygen, chloride ions, and high temperature.

It is thought to start with chromium carbide deposits along grain boundaries that leave the metal open to corrosion. In the process of intergranular corrosion, a knife-like attack, a form of intergranular corrosion, can occur when carbon reacts with niobium, titanium or the austenitic stainless steels.

Carbides form in the areas close the welded part, making it difficult for them to diffuse. Abstract. This specification covers the standard practices for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack in austenitic stainless steels.

These practices include five intergranular corrosion tests, namely: (1) oxalic acid etch test for classification of etch structures of austenitic stainless steels; (2) ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test, (3) nitric acid test and (4) copper-copper.

The Oxalic Acid Etch Test is a rapid method of identifying, by simple etching, those specimens of certain stainless steel grades that are essentially free of susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide precipitates.

These specimens will have low corrosion rates in certain corrosion tests and therefore can be eliminated (screened) from testing as “acceptable.”. Intergranular corrosion is caused by the segregation of impurities at the grain boundaries or by enrichment or depletion of one of the alloying elements in the grain boundary.

In the case of austenitic stainless steels, when they are sensitized by heating to about ° to °F, depletion of chromium in the grain boundary occurs. This. of conventional and powder metal stainless steels and specialty alloys including high temperature, stainless, superior corrosion resistant, controlled expansion alloys, ultra high-strength and implantable alloys, tool and die steels, and other specialty metals as.

addition of 1% silicon to the austenitic nickel-chromium steels produces a maximum in grain-boundary energy and a corresponding maximum in sensitivity to.Austenitic Stainless Steel Grades.

Austenitic stainless steels are classified in the and series, with 16% to 30% chromium and 2% to 20% nickel for enhanced surface quality, formability, increased corrosion and wear resistance.

Austenitic stainless steels are non-hardenable by heat treating.Austenitic stainless steel is a specific type of stainless steel alloy. Stainless steels may be classified by their crystalline structure into four main types: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and duplex. Austenitic stainless steels possess austenite as their primary crystalline structure (face-centered cubic).This austenite crystalline structure is achieved by sufficient additions of the.

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